|Josephine at the 1925 Exhibition with Driver W Ames and Fireman J Drennan. Photo by Albert Percy Godber.|
E Class steam locomotive Josephine, E 175, 0-4-4-0T. Ref: APG-0234-1/2-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/23081543
Josephine and Rose, if they had surnames, might have been Josephine and Rose Fairlie. They were the two first locomotives bought by the Province of Otago to run on the line between Port Chalmers and Dunedin.
They were of a different design to most locomotives of the day. Robert Fairlie reasoned that the efficiency of a steam locomotive could be increased iff all wheels under it were driving the engine and, for better traction on those wheels, the coal used were stored on the engine instead of on a tender behind it. The wheels were built on a pair of articulated bogies, four to each, which improved performance on what were then referred to as "colonial" railways, which were known for tighter curves. The performance of the locomotive was the same "forwards" as "backwards," making provisions for turning at the end of a line unnecessary.
The disadvantages of the design were that the amount of coal carried was necessarily small. The sole surviving usable example, on the Ffestiniog Railway in Wales, has used fuel oil piped to the firebox from behind. The design also had a necessary weak point - Fairlie had early disappointments with the design of a steam pipe which could be used to power the articulated bogies. Coiled copper pipes cracked with use and the solution was a ball-and-socket joint. The articulated bogies without unpowered guiding wheels produced a tendency to "wander" or "hunt" which was hard on the rails and made the Fairlies more susceptible to derailment. This problem was partly due to the imbalance of the bogie design - the weight of the pistons on the outside ends was not balanced by a counterweight on the inside end of the bogie.
Also an inherent problem of the design was that the driver and engineer could not change places when the locomotive was driven "backwards" - making signals difficult to see.
Among the passengers by the Wave Queen, which arrived yesterday from Bristol, is Mr Amos, engineer, formerly of the Kaipara flax mills, who went home about eighteen months ago, and has returned to take charge of the fitting up of the locomotives, carriages trucks, &c, for the Port Chalmers Railway. He is accompanied by two asssistants, Messrs Thomas and Gatwood. Photographs of the plant imported have been shown to us, all of which look substantial. First and foremost are two of Fairlie's patent double bogie engines, weighing close on 25 tons, one firstclass carriage, three composite carriages, one break goods van, passenger break van, 6 timber trucks, 14 platform trucks, and 10 covered goods waggons. The engines are respectively named the Rose and Josephine — names selected by Mr Oliver, one of the promoters, while on a visit to England. It is intended that the Wave Queen will come alongside the Railway pier at Port Chalmers and discharge the plant. The pier is now 400 feet in length, and has 18 feet of water alongside of it. The pier is to be extended over double the present distance. -Otago Witness, 10/8/1872.
DUNEDIN AND PORT CHALMERS RAILWAY.
Steam was got up yesterday for the first time on the Josephine, one of the locomotives lately imported for the Port Chalmers Railway. It had been erected in a shed on the pier by Mr Amos, engineer, who accompanied the plant out in the ship Wave Queen. During the last few days the promoters of the line — Messrs Proudfoot, Oliver, and Ulph — have been assiduous in their efforts to connect the inner end of the pier with the reclaimed land on shore. It was not until five o'clock yesterday afternoon that the rails from the tunnel to the pier were adjusted, when the signal was made to start. When the engine arrived close to the tunnel, it was stopped, and about 30 gentlemen out of the crowd in attendance, by permission found places on it, and proceeded through the tunnel amidst the cheers of the bystanders. On emerging from the tunnel at the Mussel Bay end, the cheers of the populace from the houses and along the banks again greeted the Josephine, and were responded to by those on board her. She sped along at good speed as far as Sawyer's Bay, going smoothly round some sharp curves, where the break was put on. Considering that the line is not yet properly finished, this first attempt with a weight of over 25 tons was quite a success. A slight halt was made at Sawyer's Bay, and the return journey to the Port was then made at a more rapid rate, the iron horse whistling as it came along. All returned satisfied with their ride, notwithstanding that a few were a little besmeared with soot and steam. The rapidity with which the engine was eased or stopped was a subject of remark, as also was the quickness with which it could be started again. The other locomotive (the Rose) which has also been put up on the pier, is expected to get up steam to-day. The first whistle of the Josephine was heard at half-past ten in the forenoon, intimating that she intended to start. Great praise is due to Mr George Proudfoot for the manner in which he, with a gang of men, levelled the ground and laid sleepers, rails, &c from the tunnel to the pier. -Otago Daily Times, 11/9/1872.
The Port Railway. —The trial of Fairlie’s locomotive engine Rose, fitted by Messrs Easton and McGregor, was made yesterday afternoon, at about half-past three o’clock. The sister engine Josephine was coupled on in front, and the Rose started up the line. On entering the tunnel the signal “in heads” was passed along, a caution which was not unnecessary, for though there is plenty of room for safe travelling, the experiment of leaning out of the carriage window would be a very dangerous one. Emerging from the tunnel the engine’s speed was slightly increased, and kept up until the quarry in Mussel Bay was passed; it then became necessary to slacken, as the line is not ballasted above this point. After a short stay at Blanket Bay the engine was reversed, and the party returned to the Port; and although the trip was made with not much steam, the engine went at the rate of about twenty miles an hour. -Evening Star, 12/9/1872.
The locomotive Josephine made another trial trip on the Port Chalmers railway yesterday afternoon, with a party of gentlemen. She proceeded direct to close to Burkes brewery, everything about her working smoothly. The return run to the Port from the brewery was made in thirteen and a half minutes. -Otago Daily Times, 17/9/1872.
Port Chalmers Railway.—The locomotive “Josephine” made another and more successful trial trip to Burke’s Brewery to-day than yesterday. The time occupied in the journey was only nine minutes. The engine behaved admirably, turning the curves in a smooth and satisfactory manner. Mr Burke entertained Mr Proudfoot and party in his usual hospitable manner. On the return trip a few hogsheads of beer were conveyed to Mr Dodson at Port Chalmers. -Evening Star, 17/9/1872.
BY RAIL TO PORT CHALMERS.
A trip from Dunedin to Port Chalmers by the rapid and steady-going Josephine, through scenery most varied and delightfully picturesque, together with the certainty of being cordially welcomed by the philanthropic proprietor of a well-stocked brewery, would be voted by many people in fine weather an enjoyable undertaking. The Dunedin and Port Chalmers Railway is now so near completion, that the locomotive will run, this evening, close to the Station on the Dunedin Railway Reserve. The rails were laid as far as the Stuart street jetty yesterday afternoon. The work also at the Port Chalmers end is being pushed on with corresponding vigour. The Railway Pier, for instance — an apparently very substantial and durable work — is complete to the extent, in length, of 725ft. The lower portion of the structure, including the piles, walings, &c., is built of carefully selected jarrah timber, the upper portion of the best oregon; the beams are from 80 to 100 feet long, the planking is of black pine and totara; and it is intended to increase the present length of the pier by two or three hundred feet. The arrangements also for the erection of the station at the Port are nearly matured, and the commodious and well-appointed passenger carriages, as spacious and well finished as many of those running on wide gauge railways, are ready for use. A noteworthy innovation is the facility with which, by a simple and easy process, the operations of connecting and disconnecting the carriages and trucks are executed, the man who may be called upon to perform this duty having merely to stand at the side of the carriages or trucks to be coupled or uncoupled, instead of being compelled, as was originally the case, to go between them, and so run the risk of being severely injured, and perhaps squeezed to death, by the buffers. The carriages and trucks are also fitted with radial spring draw bars to facilitate their running easily and steadily along the sharp curves. That this can be done when travelling over those of the sharpest character, ample proof was given yesterday, the oscillation of even the Josephine being of the mildest description. The contractors, from the peculiar formation of the country, have evidently had to perform in many places very hard work. The tunnels were particularly difficult to pierce, and under the stone pitching of the high, heavy embankments, there is laid 2 feet of metal, to protect the clay from the encroachments of the water. The ballasting of the line, with which great progress has been made between Curle's Point and Porty Chalmers, will be finished in about a month, and the fencing in of that portion running through Dunedin, the only part not yet done, is to be proceeded with immediately. The Josephine, which has been employed for some weeks conveying sleepers, rails, and other material along the line, will shortly be assisted in the transit of goods and the the work of ballasting by the Rose, the other locomotive. The goods station now in course of erection on the Railway Reserve, and measuring 200 ft. by 40ft., is ultimately to be doubled in size; and the conveyance of goods will be undertaken without delay, commencing with the transit to Port Chalmers of some of this season's wool. The railway will be open for passenger traffic in a month or six weeks at the latest, and the journey, including stoppages, will be performed in about twentyfive minutes. -Otago Daily Times, 24/10/1872.
The Dunedin and Port Chalmers Railway is in a sufficiently complete state to allow of a train to pass along the line. On Saturday last, by invitation of the contractors, several members of the General Assembly, who had arrived from Wellington were conveyed in a first-class carriage, drawn by the locomotive Josephine, under the guidance of Mr. Amos and assistants, the time occupied on the journey being about forty minutes. It is announced that a train will run on the Princes of Wales’s birthday, the 9th inst. -Dunstan Times, 1/11/1872.
The Port Railway has made rapid progress during the last few days, and last night the locomotive Josephine came up with a train of loaded trucks to within a few yards of the station, all the connections up to that point having been made. The locomotive is a funny sort of machine —just like two of the normal shape turned end to end, with the stoking department in the middle and a funnel at each end, and mounted on two sets of four wheels each. There is a great deal yet to do to the line — hardly any ballasting being laid at this end, and the rails shake and give a good deal. The Jetty at the Port is to be brought into use at once, the E. P. Bouverie and the May Queen, both late from Britain, are to unload their cargoes into the waggons alongside, and are advertised to be laid down in Dunedin for 4s 6d a ton clear. -Grey River Argus, 4/11/1872.
|Josephine making her first run at Port Chalmers. Hocken Library photo.|
Yesterday the railway people were forcibly reminded of the adage that "misfortunes never come singly." On the day previous, a slip of rock and earth occurred on the Port Chalmers line, and yesterday morning the 11.30 train from the Port, instead of continuing on the rails leading to the Station platform, ran on to the siding where passenger carriages are placed until required for immediate use. At this time only one carriage happened to be in the way; but the bottom frame, as well as that part of it facing the engine, was smashed. The bogie plate and pin of the locomotive were also broken. After the accident it was found that some person, having lifted the connecting rod of the points, presumably to send the carriages along the siding, had, in order to prevent its rebound, placed a stone under it, and, by omitting to remove which, the train necessarily branched off on to the siding. Mr W. Proudfoot was on the engine, and the General Manager, Mr Rolfe, was in the guard's van at the time of the accident. Of course, the brakes were applied immediately it was found the train had left the main line, whereby the force of the shock was proportionately lessened. Excepting that those on the engine, as well as some of the passengers, were much startled by the shaking which followed the collision, no further harm was done. The other engine, the Josephine, is now undergoing repairs at Port Chalmers, and the traffic was therefore suspended until the disabled engine, the Rose, can be again placed in working order. We believe that the running of the trains as usual will be resumed to-day. -Otago Daily Times, 21/8/1873.
|Josephine behind a "Yankee K" locomotive - the first Dunedin-Christchurch train, 6/9/1878. Photo from The Railway Magazine.|
Rose's career lasted until this accident, near Shag Point, Otago. She was reportedly towed to the workshops in Dunedin and scrapped there.
Palmerston, September 25.—The 0.10 a.m. train to-day from Palmerston on arriving in the neighborhood of Rowley’s bridge, near Coal Point, and on going round a curve and down the heavy gradient there, ran into an engine and truck on their way to Palmerston, conveying Oamaru stone. The truck had got off the line, and it is stated that no warning was given to the approaching train from Palmerston. Jenkins, fireman of the latter train, jumped off, and was not much hurt, though he feels internal pains. White, the engine-driver of the same train, sustained a simple fracture four or five inches below the knee. He was attended to by Dr Brown, of Palmerston, and was afterwards conveyed to the Oamaru hospital.
From inquiries made it appears that the goods train from Oamaru was late, and that one of the waggons breaking down caused a further detention. The station-master at Palmerston, without awaiting the arrival of this train, started the passenger train for Oamaru at the usual hour, thinking the goods train would run on to some siding, and the accident happened five minutes after the departure of the passenger train. The blame is therefore attributable to the Palmerston station-master in foolishly starting his train. The noon train from Oamaru did not arrive till 3 p.m. in consequence of the accident. The damage to the engines is not so great as was at first expected. The breaking of the buffer of one of the engines and the damaging of the buffers of two of the waggons were the only injuries sustained by the plant.
Our Oamaru correspondent sends the following additional particulars:— The goods train is supposed to leave Oamaru at about half-past three o’clock in the morning, and to reach Palmerston at ten minutes past six, passing the train from that place for Oamaru. There are general instructions to keep a look-out for the passenger train. On this occasion the goods train was considerably after time both in arriving and departing from Oamaru. It was half-past four when the goods train left Oamaru; it did not pass Otepopo until 5.30, or five minutes too late to reach Palmerston in time to pass the passenger train at that place The goods train was driven by McMoran, the guard being Arthur Daney, Immediately on receipt of the news of the accident a special train was got ready and proceeded to the scene of the disaster, conveying a quantity of material and implements for repairing the line. This train left Oamaru at ten minutes to ten o’clock, and had on board Mr S. Loring (district station master), and Mr Burnett (railway engineer), accompanied by a gang of workmen. It proceeded at a rapid rate, but at Otepopo a stoppage was made in order to ascertain whether or not the line was open, or whether or not an engine had been sent on with the passengers of the disabled train. At Oamaru Dr Smith, the local surgeon for the Railway Benefit Society, joined the party. The train left again at 11.15 a.m., having been detained pending the receipt of telegraphic news. The accident occurred at 0.30, close to Rowley’s crossing, about a mile north of Pukeiviti. The goods train had passed Hampden at three minutes past six, and, after going some distance, one of the centre trucks got off the line and ran along in this manner for a considerable distance before the train was pulled up. To the fact of the goods train having to stop may he attributed the pleasing fact that the accident was not of a more serious nature, for the place where the accident occurred is one of the worst on the line, the curves being both numerous and short, rendering it impossible for those on the trains to see far ahead. The first object to meet the view on nearing the scene of the accident was a large quantity of grain and some debris from one of the colliding engines. Near these lay the driver of the passenger train, James White, whose left leg was found to be broken in two places below the knee — both simple fractures. His leg had been bandaged up by some of those on the ground, but the poor fellow must have suffered tremendously, having lain in the open air from half-past six o’clock until nearly one o’clock. He was attended by Dr Smith, and, having been placed in a carriage on a mattrass and brought to Oamaru by the return special, was at once removed by express to the Hospital, Mr Loming having telegraphed to have everything ready. It was almost impossible to obtain anything like reliable information as to what took place when the engines met. So far as can be ascertained the goods train had been brought to a standstill owing to the truck being off the line. Before they had time to send a man ahead to warn the passenger train from Palmerston that the line was blocked up, the up-train came up. The driver at once put on the brake and shut off steam, but it was impossible to avoid a collision. The stoker jumped off the engine without any injury, but White, the driver, in getting off, missed the lower steps, and in coming to the ground broke his left leg. No other persons were injured to any extent worth noticing, though there wore some of them bruised. The telegram received by Mr Bering stated that some of the passengers were injured, but this was altogether wrong, and gave a more serious appearance to the accident than was actually the case. Fortunately, there were no passengers on the train, while the fact that the goods train was not in motion, tended greatly to lessen the effects of the collision. Still, both engines appear to have suffered to some extent, more particularly that of the goods train. Large pieces of iron, bolts, etc., belonging to it are lying about in all directions. When we arrived at the scene of the accident the line was again clear, both trains having proceeded to Palmerston, so that there will be no stoppage of the traffic. As one result of the accident, the express train from the South was a long way behind time, having been detained in consequence of the line having been blocked. The special train reached Oamaru on its return at a quarter past two o’clock. -Evening Star, 25/9/1878.
Josephine continued working on the Otago lines until transfer to the North Island.
The s s Go-Ahead brought up from Dunedin yesterday morning a "double Fairlie" locomotive for use on the Wanganui section of the railway. -Wanganui Herald, 14/4/1883.
The short report above is Josephine's possible historical alibi for involvement in the accident reported below - there were a few locomotives in New Zealand described as "double Fairlies" and the distinction is made between the "Vulcan" Class E (Josephine and Rose) and the "Avonside" Class E. So either the report above is incorrect or the report below has the wrong engine type. My guess is the latter.
The double Fairlie involved in the fatal accident to Thomas Meek might have been the "Lady Mourdant," a B Class Double Fairlie. This locomotive arrived in Otago in 1875 and was used until 1896.
An inquest touching the death of Thomas Meek, engine-driver, who died at the Hospital on Wednesday evening from injuries sustained by an accident at the Dunedin railway-station, was held last evening at seven o'clock, before District Coroner Hocken and a jury of thirteen, of whom Mr W. O. Ball was chosen foreman.
The following evidence was taken:- Alexander Graham, fireman, deposed: At about five o'clock on Wednesday afternoon deceased and I were in the engine-shed. He was packing glands; and I went underneath the engine and oiled the axle-boxes. I was acting as his fireman at the time. After the oiling was completed both of us mounted the engine and went to the coal-shed. Deceased jumped off and told me to shift the engine, while he was turning the points. I saw him turn the points, stand up straight, and wave to me to come ahead. I gave the engine steam. The relief-cocks were open, the engine slipped, and I could not see him because of the steam which came from the cocks. I gave the engine steam again, and by the time I had got half a length of the engine I heard him cry "Oh!" and I stopped the engine immediately. Deceased was crushed between the engine and the coal-stage, and just then he fell down, crying "God have mercy on my soul!" Assistance was at once procured, and he was taken to the Hospital. He was crushed by the footplate, the existence of which he appeared to have forgotten. The engine was a double Fairlie, class E, and there was very little room between the footplate and the stage — only about five or six inches. It was not necessary for deceased to be where he was at the time. If he had gone on three or four feet he would have been quite clear. He had plenty of time to go, as the engine is very slow to start. I saw him turn to go, but whether he lost himself; in the steam or not I cannot say.
Francis Michael Donovan, assistant shedman at the railway station, stated that he saw the deceased being turned round between the footplate and the stage. As soon as he got to the corner of the stage he fell down and cried out: "Lord have mercy on me," or something to that effect. Witness went up and found deceased groaning and insensible.
James Williamson, an eye-witness of the accident, said he saw the deceased get entangled, with the stage. The accident appeared to have been purely accidental.
Abraham Blackmore, locomotive foreman, gave evidence regarding the situation of the points. He said deceased had no right to back round the corner of the stage; he should have turned the points and walked straight across to his engine. The fireman gave the engine steam rather quickly, as evidenced by the slipping at the end next to deceased, thus obscuring the view. Had he given her steam at the other end this would not have occurred. Witness did not think the points were too near the stage, and was sure an accident would not have taken place with ordinary precaution. The accident must have resulted through want of care on the part of deceased. No better arrangement regarding the points could be made, unless perhaps the switch were brought a little farther down. Deceased was a sober and industrious man.
Dr Roberts stated that the deceased was brought to the Hospital at about six o'clock on Wednesday evening. He was suffering from severe internal injuries, his pelvis was fractured, and he was in a state of great collapse. He was sensible at the time, and suffered a great deal of pain, expiring at about a quarter to eight p.m. This was all the evidence.
The Coroner said the occurrence appeared to have been purely accidental, and it was for the jury to suggest any plan that would prevent the recurrence of such an accident. So far as they had been able to learn, no improvement could be made in the existing arrangements, want of action on the part of deceased being apparently the cause of the accident.
The Jury, without retiring, found a verdict of "Accidental death." -Evening Star, 4/5/1883.
|Southern cemetery, Dunedin. DCC photo.|
Josephine featured in the news of progress of the railways in the North Island. She goes unnamed so placing her with accuracy is difficult.
OPENING OF THE MANUTAHI EXTENSION.
(FROM OUR SPECIAL REPORTER.) Patea, Aug 28. This is observed as a gala day in Patea, to celebrate the opening of the line from Waverley to Manutahi. A train, consisting of a double Fairlie engine, six double cars, and a van, left Wanganui at 8.35 a.m. with about 200 passengers, and a large crowd congregated at the station to see the train depart. The new Bogie car, intended for the through journey, travelled beautifully. The train picked up passengers at various stations along the line, and by the time it reached Patea, fully 300 hundred passengers were on board. At Whenuakura a large number of natives were assembled to witness the passage of the train. The "swamp" was passed in safety, although a number of passengers expressed a little uneasiness about it. Everything went pleasantly, and the train arrived at Patea at a quarter past twelve, ten minutes before the supposed due time. Consequently the Band, Volunteers, &c, had not arrived. The visitors were, however, welcomed by the reception committee, consisting of Messrs R. A. Adams, (Mayor), H. E. P. Adams, Haywood, Tennent, Brown, Lundberg, Miller, Taylor, Smart, Williams, Morrison, Bright (ec), Donoghue, Gower, Potto, Taplin, Eyton, Turner, Cowern, Sherwood, Clayton, and Gibson. The Rifle Volunteers, under Capt. Taplin, headed by the band, under Bandmaster Hamerton, then drew up, followed by a procession of school children. The Mayor, in a brief address, welcomed the visitors, and declared the line open, on behalf of the Government, expressing regret at the absence of the member for the district and Sir Wm. Fox (who was to have declared the line open, but was unable to attend). He also expressed a hope that the time is not far distant when the line would be opened to Hawera by a similar demonstration. Three cheers were then given for the Queen and the Railway, and after a Royal Salute by the Volunteers, the band played the National Anthem and led the return procession to town. The Station was gaily decorated with flowers and evergreens, and bunting was flying on shipping and all over the town. A handsome arch with the words "Welcome to Patea," was erected over the entrance to the station. The school children were all entertained at luncheon by Capt. Taplin. Sergt. Major Henry was also in attendance with the Volunteers. Wanganui is represented by the Mayor and Councillors Murray, Bell, Manson, and Laird; and Hawera by the Mayor and Councillor Lynch. Mr Knorpp Superintending Engineer, is also present; and the Public Works is represented by Messrs J. T. Stewart (District Engineer), and Rawson. Mr Rotherham (manager), and J. and A. Wilkie, contractors, are also present.
THE BANQUET. One hundred people sat down to luncheon at St. James' Hall. The Mayor presided, and Mr Tennent occupied the vice chair. The tables were elegantly laid out by Mr Buckley, the caterer. After a hearty repast was partaken of, the Mayor proposed "The Queen," which was drunk with musical honors. Mr Tennent proposed "Success to the Railway," coupled with the name of the Mayor, and referred to it as a colonial institution, and to the benefit of the opening to Patea as a port. Mr Sherwood proposed "The Visitors," whom he heartily welcomed on the auspicious occasion, and referred in hopeful terms to the future of Patea. He also expressed a hope that the harbor works of Wanganui would be carried out successfully, and enhance the value of that town. The Mayors of Wanganui and Hawera replied, Mr Carson conveying to the Patea people the congratulations of Wanganui, and expressing the opinion that the line should have been completed long ago. Mr Bate said it would rest between Wanganui and Patea, which should have the Hawera trade, and they would go to the cheapest port. Mr Bright proposed "the agricultural, pastoral, and commercial interests of the West Coast." He spoke specially with regard to meat freezing, dairy factories, and direct communication, and he gave statistics to show that the Taranaki district was among the leading ones of the colony, in grain producing, according to acreage. The county Chairman replied, arguing that farmers must grow more food to supply fat stock during the winter when good prices are ruling. He concluded by urging the people of Patea and Hawera to unite in their common interest. The visitors left by train on the return journey. Mr Rotherham is to be complimented on the convenience of the railway arrangements, which met with entire satisfaction. -Wanganui Herald, 28/8/1883.
The section of the railway between New Plymouth and the inland towns, and indeed as far as Wanganui, has, since the opening of direct communication with the breakwater and with Wellington, shown a remarkable accession of traffic, and it is understood that the Railway Department have in contemplation the placing of heavier and more powerful engines on the line. Accordingly a double Fairlie engine, the first of the type which has appeared in New Plymouth, was brought through from the southern end of the section on Sunday, for the purpose, so it is stated, of testing the bridges, in order to ascertain whether they are of the requisite strength to support this heavier class of rolling stock. The viaduct between the breakwater and the town was also tested, and the results are believed to have been with one exception very satisfactory. Mr. Hankey, the District Manager, came through with the engine, and conducted the tests. A return south was made at about 5 o'clock in the afternoon. It is probable that the double Fairlie engine will first be used on the occasion of the Easter Encampment. It is understood that the railway bridge and viaduct at Garrington Road is shortly to be replaced by a new structure. -Wanganui Herald, 21/3/1887.
|"A Double Fairlie Engine" - NZ Times, 10/6/1903. With nameplate obscured, all that can be said is that it might be Josephine.|
COSY CORNER CLUB.
THE PORT CHALMERS RAILWAY.
Dear Emmellie,— Though not a member of your C.C. Club, I may be permitted to extend my congratulations to you and your contributors on the excellent reading matter afforded in your column— especially the topics on "Gardening" and "A Page from New Zealand History: Maori or Pakeha." | What interested me most last week was Boy Friend's reminiscences, especially that part dealing with the opening of the Dunedin-Port Chalmers line. It brought up memories of happy boyhood days, for, like Boy Friend, I was a very small boy when the Dunedin-Port Chalmers line was opened officially on Boxing Day, 1872, and as I lived close to the railway it was with keen delight that I witnessed daily the passing to and fro of the first trains, and cheered them on their way, and placed pins on the line to be converted into "swords and "spades." These first engines are old friends of mine, for did not the driver one day gratify the height of my ambition by allowing me to accompany him in the engine, down to Port? I should like, with your permission, to correct a slight error in Boy Friend's remarks anent the F class locomotives, and at the same time to add a word or two by way of supplementing his interesting account. The first F class engines used here consisted of the Waverley, the Rob Roy, the Roderick Dhu, the Talisman the Ochiltree, and the Saladin — names, you will observe, from Scott's Waverley novels. Their names were painted in gold on the tanks with a chocolate or green ground. Prior to the F class we had the E class, consisting of the Rose and the Josephine, then, later, the Lady Mordaunt, and, later still, 23, 24, and 25 (heavier engines). The F class were similar to our present F class which are used for shunting in the Dunedin yards. The E's were double Fairlie engines, with a funnel at each end and the cab in the centre. The first two engines commissioned to run passenger trains on the Port line were the Rose and the Josephine. They were sister engines, identical in every respect, painted a beautiful enamelled green, with the names in relief in brass lettering. The Rose, on its arrival, was erected at Port Chalmers by Messrs Easton and McGregor's blacksmithing and engineering firm. Jack Thomas, the driver, came out from Home, under engagement, with the Rose and the Josephine, and Tom Graham was firing for him. The Josephine, I understand, was built by George Amos, an engine-driver who also came out from Home, but under no engagement, and who afterwards became loco. foreman in Oamaru. These two men, then were the original drivers of the Rose and the Josephine. Tom Graham (who got a position as driver about a year later) and Jack Thomas have retired and are living in Dunedin, but George Amos died some years ago. Another veteran driver who came on about two years after the line was opened was C. A. Reeves, who is still in the loco. sheds here, looking hale and hearty. He retires next year. The Lady Mordaunt was one of his engines. The Rose and the Josephine were speedy engines, and could run like deers, having driving wheels 47m or 48in in diameter — equally as large as the driving wheels of our modern Q and UB Baldwins, — but the sharp curves on the Port line proved a bit trying to them, the bend on the engines frequently causing their firebox plates to spring. But heavier engines were required to meet the growing demands of the traffic, and so 23, 24, and 25 — three engines of the same class — were added, having smaller wheels and larger cylinders. What became of these latter engines I don't know, but the Rob Roy was in Dunedin recently and, if I am rightly informed, is now in the North Island, while the Roderick Dhu is said to be working somewhere on the Clinton-Oamaru section of the line. The Rose has been "scrapped" — part of it here and the other part in Christchurch. The Josephine, I believe, was years ago shipped to the North Island, was brought back and did service in Central Otago about five years ago. I saw my old friend the Josephine about 12 months ago standing at the loco. sheds in Cumberland street — outside, of course: she is not one of the elite now. All her former youthful splendour is now covered over with a sombre, unrelieved, dull colour, her name removed, and only a spot about the size of a sixpence of its original green colour to be detected on one of its driving wheels. She was then about to be sent up to Lawrence to do ballast work on the Lawrence-Roxburgh line. She was brought back to Dunedin and shipped up to Auckland, where she is now doing service for the Public Works Department on the Helensville line.
Speaking of the Josephine reminds me of a sensational railway accident which happened at the foot of Hanover street, two or three years after the line was opened, in which the Josephine played a part. A man named Borland was returning from town one Saturday night about 9 o'clock. He was returning along the railway line towards Hanover street, laden with purchases he had made for the morrow's breakfast and with a packet of lollies for the children. (I remember every detail of the incident well.) In trying to negotiate the cattle-steps at Hanover street he got his foot jammed in between two of the triangular wooden bars running parallel with the line. Finding himself unable to extricate himself, he cried for help, which speedily brought some of the neighbours to his assistance. Just at that moment the shrill whistle of the Josephine was heard as it rounded Black Jack's Point, bringing the train from Port. That whistle proved the undoing of the good people who were trying to liberate the unfortunate man, for it suddenly warned them that if the man's life was to be saved the right thing would have to be done, and that speedily. A crowbar, an axe, a saw, or even a stout piece of wood to prise the bars open a little — any one of these things would have sufficed, — but the little crowd seemed to lose their presence of mind, and the one thing needful was not forthcoming. The train had stopped at Pelichet Bay. In the excitement which followed, someone shouted "Stop the train! Stop the train!" A lantern with a red handkerchief over the light would have done that, but it was not thought of. Mr Pullen, a well-known Star-runner at that time, was one of the first on the scene, and in answer to the cry "Stop the train!" he ran down the line to meet it. He met the train at the foot of Frederick street, when it had gathered considerable impetus after leaving Pelichet Bay. Mr Pullen gesticulated and shouted to stop. But the night was dark, and he could not be seen; and although the driver (Tom Graham) heard shouts, he very naturally attributed it to the boys who were wont to cheer the passing train at this particular spot. The train rushed on, and the crowd, impotent to help, could only step aside as the head-light approached and watch, with horror, the man being mangled before their eyes.
The Rose is lost to us; and I am strongly of opinion that in case a similar fate befall its sister engine, now in Helensville, the public of Dunedin should petition the Minister of Railways to have the old Josephine removed to Dunedin when it is done with, instead of "scrapping" it, with a view to preserving it for exhibition to the public as one of the first two engines to run on the Dunedin-Port Chalmers line.—Yours sincerely, j. a. -Otago Witness, 28/9/1910.
A quick search for "Borland" in the local cemetery records revealed a Thomas Borland in the Southern Cemetery, with a date of death of May 18, 1875. And "Papers Past" reveals this:
THE ACCIDENT AT HANOVER STREET RAILWAY CROSSING.
An inquest was held at the hospital at noon to-day, before Mr T. M. Hocken, District Coroner, and a jury of twelve (Mr John McLaren being foreman) on the body of Thomas Borland, whose death resulted from injuries caused by an accident which happened to him on the railway-crossing at Hanover street on the evening of Friday last.
The Coroner explained that the case was of such considerable importance, that after taking some evidence it would be necessary to adjourn the inquiry. Deceased received injuries resulting in death a few nights ago by a train running over him at the Hanover street crossing. He (the Coroner) had that morning inspected the place, and it was advisable that at the adjournment the jury should do so. Deceased was undoubtedly trespassing on the line in walking from his work from the Dunedin end towards Port Chalmers, and when he came to the crossing crossed over the cattle-stopper, used for preventing cattle trespassing on the line. A more dangerous trap be (the Coroner) never saw. A culvert ran at right angles under the crossing, and anyone getting his foot between two of the planks could not extricate it without considerable trouble. Part of the crossing was certainly on the street line, the street being consequently narrowed there; and therefore it was of great importance the railway inspector (Mr Matheson) should be summoned. There was no gate whatever at the crossing, and it seemed to show some want of care on the part of the Government in not having one.
The following evidence was then given:—
William Bishop, railway guard on the Dunedin and Port Chalmers line, was in charge of the 7-15p.m. train from the Port on Friday evening last. He knew nothing of the accident. The crossing in question was a level one, and at the north and east ends of it there was called a Yankee cattle crossing, for the purpose of preventing cattle trespassing on the line, and to do away with the gates running parallel with the line. He could not say why the crossing projected on to the street line; and there was no preventive to persons trespassing on the line. By the jury; There are no lights at this point. The night in question was dark and drizzling. Deceased must have been trespassing on the line when the accident occurred. Persons frequently trespassed along the line at night.
The Coroner: Have no steps been taken to prevent them?
Witness: We have taken steps, but I believe there is no Act of Parliament to prevent them doing so. The permanent Inspector of Ways frequently wished to prosecute people for trespassing on the line, but Mr Stout, the Provincial Solicitor, had given it as his opinion that no legal steps could be taken to prevent them.
Thomas Graham, engine-driver to the 7.15 train from Port Chalmers, on the night in question heard some-one calling when the train was within about 100 yards of the Hanover street crossing. As children were always playing about here, and shouted at the approach of the train, he paid no unusual attention to the cries, not being able to distinguish them. He had whistled just after leaving Pelichet Bay, and knew nothing of the accident.
Jane Baten, living close to the Hanover street crossing, deposed that about eight o’clock on Friday night last she saw a man walking along the railway-line towards Pelichet Bay. She afterwards found that he had got his foot in the crossing, and on going up to him, saw his foot jammed in the cattle-catcher. They found it impossible to get his foot out before the train passed over him. The Star runner ran along the line to try and stop the train.
William Wilson, living near the crossing in question, said that shortly before eight o’clock on Friday, night his wife told him there was a man on the railway-line, and that they could not get him off. He immediately ran out, and by the aid of the engine light he saw a man lying at his full length between the rails. The train passed over him, and he said, “Oh, relieve my leg.” Witness laid hold of the one fast in the grating, and deceased said it was the other one. Witness then got the other leg free; it was lying under the flange of the rail, quite smashed. Deceased was then removed to the Hospital. He was quite sensible. A lamp at the crossing would not have enabled the driver to see more than twenty-five yards. The distance between the rails of the crossing varied from about one and a-half to three and a quarter inches. The larger space would allow a man’s foot to slip through, but it would not be easy to drag it out again. The cow-catcher encroached two feet on the street line and was very dangerous, as there were so many children playing about. He thought it should be called a “mancatcher,” and not a cow-catcher. When this trap or catch was laid down the gates were removed, and the “catcher” was on what should be the footpath.
The Coroner: It is, indeed, a most dangerous trap.
A juror said the man could not have been trespassing, as he was really on the street line, and the Coroner said that was where the difficulty was, and that it necessitated Mr Matheson's being summoned.
James Pollen, Star runner, (who said that Boland did not seem to be sober) and deceased’s wife, having been examined, the inquiry was adjourned till to-morrow, for the production of Mr Matheson. -Evening Star, 19/5/1875.
So, Josephine was a killer after all.
After this recollection it becomes difficult to place Josephine anywhere with first-hand precision until the New Zealand and South Seas International Exhibition of 1925, although her reported history has her sold of for scrap to the Otago Iron Rolling Mills in 1917. Josephine was as close to her ultimate demise as possible but, apparently, no one at the mill had the heart to do the deed. Josephine crossed the boundary between being old and becoming venerable when she was donated by the mill to the Exhibition.
THE BIG EXHIBITION
GREAT GOVERNMENT EXHIBIT
51,000 SQUARE FEET OF SPACE
FINEST DISPLAY EVER PRESENTED (excerpt)
The Railway Department will be making a most comprehensive exhibit of the latest type of locomotive, which can be compared in juxtaposition with Josephine engine, one of the oldest in New Zealand. Also a car of the latest model will be shown in contrast with an old-type car. The maintenance and signalling branch of the Railway Service will provide a complete exhibit of track tools, signalling apparatus, ordinary and motor velocipedes, tablet instruments, etc., with a general display of large photographs. The advertising branch of the service will show painted advertisements, signs, and posters. -Evening Star, 27/3/1925.
|Josephine at the Exhibition. Photo by Percy Godber. Interior view of the cab of "Josephine" steam locomotive.. Ref: APG-1348-1/2-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/23108874|
EARLY SETTLERS’ ASSOCIATION
In its annual report the committee of the Otago Early Settlers’ Association states:—
We have much pleasure in forwarding the annual report for the year ended April 30, the twenty-ninth anniversary of the association and the seventy-ninth anniversary of the province (March 23, 1848). The record of the year’s work is very satisfactory, financially and otherwise. The committee has every reason to be satisfied with the results and with the prospects for the future. During the past year we have lost by death and otherwise 122 members, and during the same period we have enrolled 190 new members, forty-four being early settlers and 146 descendants, showing a gain of sixty-eight members for the year. The museum and portrait gallery continue to be of increasing interest to members, to the general public, and to visitors from other lands, as is evident by the large number of these who visit the gallery from time to time, a great many of whom freely express their appreciation of the valuable and unique collection contained therein. Many new portraits and pictures and other interesting articles have been added during the past year. Among these the locomotive “Josephine,” the first railway engine to draw a passenger train from Dunedin to Port Chalmers, and the first railway opened in Otago. The engine was presented by the Otago Iron Rolling Mills Company, Green Island. -Evening Star, 26/5/1927.
EARLY SETTLERS’ ASSOCIATION
The annual meeting of the Otago Early Settlers’ Association was held last evening, the president (Mr W. Nicolson) being in the chair.
The Chairman moved the adoption of the annual report (previously published), and said the association had had a busy time during the year. There had been a number or extra meetings of the committee, mostly in connection with the purchasing of the Art Gallery Hall. The committee had approached the City Council, and finally the hall was purchased for £4.000. The hall had already been let. With regard to the first steam engine, the Josephine, he said the association had negotiated with the railway authorities, with the result that the locomotive had been placed in the reserve next to the Early Settlers’ Hall free of charge. A cover was yet to be placed over the engine. He made reference to the association’s museum of curios and photographs, and said it was a great asset to the city. Many visitors had described it as the finest they had seen. Mr Crosby Morris seconded the motion, and in doing so said that the Josephinewas in such an inconspicuous position, tucked away in a corner, that it was not seen properly. If it was brought a little nearer the road it would be seen much better. The Chairman explained that the association had been advised to place the engine where it was by the superintendent of reserves. The motion was adopted. -Evening Star, 31/5/1927.
OLD ENGINES AND THEIR DRIVERS.
MR W. F. SLIGO’S RECOLLECTIONS.
Those who attended the University Club’s luncheon yesterday had the pleasure of listening for about half an hour to an interesting address by Mr W. I. Sligo, who related some of his recollections of the engines which did duty on the New Zealand railways many years ago, and also gave some particulars about their drivers.
Mr T. R. Fleming, who occupied the chair, said he thought they owed a debt of gratitude to Mr Sligo for the manner in which he had given way to Professor Osborne last week. Mr Sligo would tell them some of his own experiences with old locomotive engines and their drivers. Mr Sligo stated that in 1872 (he) a young locomotive driver from Newport, Wales, was engaged by the New Zealand Government to come out here with two railway engines and some rolling stock. When he arrived here the Port Chalmers tunnel was not completed and be arranged a makeshift locomotive with a railway wagon, a portable engine, and some gear, and assisted in ballasting the line up to Black Jack’s Point. The imported locomotives were twin sisters — the Rose and the Josephine. The Rose was scrapped some years ago. The construction of tne Josephine was such that the engine could run in either direction without the use of a turn-table. The tanks were round the boiler, but there was an object in that, and the most up-to-date engine on the section to-day was constructed in a similar way. In cases where the coal and water were carried at the back of the engine, they had to be pulled just as a truck or a carriage had to be pulled, but when they were in the engine itself the tractive power was increased. No doubt the designer of the Rose and the Josephine had in mind the fact that side tanks would give a considerable advantage. The last work done by the Josephine was as a ballast engine on the Central Otago railway between Clyde and Cromwell not very many years ago. Then she was ruthlessly dumped on the the scrap heap at the Burnside Iron Works, but thanks to the efforts of Messrs Smellie brothers, the directors of the Exhibition, and the Government she was rescued and now stood in a little park adjoining the Early Settler’s Hall.
The first engine driver was a man named Jack Thomas. He was still quite well and hearty, and was enjoying his retirement after a unique record of probably about 50 years on the footplate. Mr Thomas was a particularly successful driver, and was resourceful, cool, punctual, and thoroughly reliable. He must have possessed all these qualifications to have gone on for 50 years and to have left the record he had left as a driver. He had one collision, and on one occasion he lost a fireman near the Goodwood bridge. The fireman on another train was knocked off the same bridge. Mr Thomas’s first fireman was a mart named Tom Graham.
The construction of the railway moved very slowly for some years, said Mr Sligo. In December, 1877, the section from Dunedin to Waitati was opened, and four months later the line was extended to Waikouaiti. At the same time a move was being made towards the south. The Caversham tunnel was finished earlier than the Chain Hills tunnel, and for a time trains were run to Green Island, where a coach service connected with the railway. About 1879 the railway was completed from Christchurch to Bluff.
The next engine that was constructed was in charge of a man named George Amos, and Charlie Stewart was his fireman. Later on Mr Stewart was appointed a driver, and in a year or two he was made locomotive foreman in Dunedin. The speaker said he thought that Mr Allison D. Smith was locomotive engineer at the time. Mr Stewart, who was a very kind-hearted man and who was very well liked, was transferred to Invercargill as foreman in 1880, and his place in Dunedin was taken by Mr Abraham Blackmore, who introduced a more rigid system of discipline. After mentioning that in those days trains ran from Port Chalmers to Ocean Beach, Mr Sligo related how Mr Blackmore disciplined a driver who was very untidy. This man was warned that he must cease his habit of smoking bn the platform or in the sheds, and his dress was such that he was told he was a disgrace to the service. Mr Blackmore’s efforts met with such success that, in a few years the men on this section had the credit of being the most tidy and the best organised in New Zealand.
Mr Stewart was not happy away from Dunedin, and in due course he applied for a transfer here as driver. The application was granted, and for many years he ran express trains in the capacity of a first-class driver.
Mr Sligo said he wished to make a few remarks about the disabilities that had to be endured in early days. For one thing the grades were much heavier than they were now. Some of those present would remember the time when trains going south passed over level crossings on the Anderson’s Bay road and at King Edward street, following with a grade of 1 in 33 to Caversham. It was practically a standing start from King Edward, street until bars were put up to cut off the road traffic. Until 1885, said Mr Sligo, the trains were controlled entirely by hand brakes. A trip to Balclutha and a return journey to Mosgiel with 40 trucks of coal had to be done with hand brakes. When a train was approaching a station on a down grade very great care had to be exercised, and a lot of time was lost in approaching stations. The result was that a driver had to rush along when he left a station, and the actual running speed was pretty considerable. In 1885 the P. and V. engineers were introduced, and when they reached Addington, Mr Rotherham, who was then locomotive superintendent, arranged a steam brake, which was welcomed by drivers and firemen as the greatest improvement made in connection with the department for many years. Many years later the Westinghouse brake, which ran through a whole train, was introduced.
Another great disability at one time arose from the classes of coal used on the engines. It was decided that each section throughout New Zealand should burn local coal. This meant that on the Dunedin section, Walton Park, Fernhill, Green Island, and local lignite coals were used, while on the North Island, Shag Point coal and, later, Allandale coal formed the engine fuel. As they went south they used Kaitangata coal, and on the Southland lines, Nightcaps coal was used. The local coals were heavily charged with sulphur, and the men on the engines were severely punished when going through big tunnels, especially when there were two engines on a train. The conditions were so severe that the use of local lignites had to be stopped, and the Kaitangata Company got a contract for the supply of coal for the whole of the Otago section. It was necessary to put spark arrestors on the engines, and their efficiency was thus destroyed to a large extent, with the result that the drivers could not get along with their trains.
Mr Sligo proceeded to relate the experience of one driver on a very disagreeable night. A driver, who was on his way from Dunedin to Balclutha, had to do some shunting at Milton. Eventually the signal to proceed was given, but when the driver had gone about a mile further it occurred to bim that he was getting on too comfortably, and he then made the discovery that the whole train except one truck had been left behind at Milton. Another interesting story was told about a fireman who was sent to do relieving work on the Lawrence branch, which had a reputation for having “curvature of the spine” very badly. When the train was in the vicinity of Mount Stuart the new fireman told the driver, Mr George Black, who was a driver on that branch line for about 40 years, that there were red lights ahead. Mr Black did not seem at all perturbed, and he reassured his companion by telling him that what he saw were the tail lights of the van.
In the early days, said the speaker, there was a brewery at Burkes, and the drivers seemed to have some influence there, for a can of beer was occasionally left in a bush just about where the engines usually stopped. Mr Smith eventually became aware of the practice, and one day he visited Burkes. He saw a can of beer deposited in the bush, and he poured the contents out, replacing them with salt water from the harbour. Presently a train came along, and although the driver was signalled to stop, he managed to struggle along to the bush. The fireman took the can into the engine, but Mr Smith caused some consternation by stating that he was going to have a ride on the engine. A little later the driver asked his mate if there was any “ tea ” in the can, and on receiving an affirmative reply he decided to have, a drink. He drank half the contents, and threw the rest outside. The engineer said: “It is hot!" and the reply was: “Yes d hot.”
On the motion of Mr H. E. Barrowclough, Mr Sligo was accorded a hearty vote of thanks for his address. -Otago Daily Times, 7/7/1928.
SAWYERS’ BAY SCHOOL.
JUBILEE CELEBRATIONS. (excerpt)
SOCIAL EVENING. In the evening there was a continuation of the festivities in the form of a social gathering. Community singing of well-known old-time choruses under the conductorship of Mr T. Kettle, with Miss Olive Perry as pianist, was one of the principal items of the evening. Mr George Scott McDermid was the first speaker, and he traced the history of the early school days of the district. Mr McDermid remembered the first trip of the Josephine between Port Chalmers and Dunedin and after boyish fashion longed to own that engine. His desire had since been realised, for, as a member of the Early Settlers’ Association of Otago, he was a part custodian of that early locomotive. -Otago Daily Times, 9/3/1931.
|View of the E Class Double-ended Fairlie Steam Locomotive Josephine assembled in '1872' beside whaling pots, Otago Settlers Museum, Dunedin. Ref: 1/2-187844-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/30627719|
The Story of "Josephine"
New Zealand's Pioneer Engine
Proud as an old lady in bonnet and mantle receiving the respectful homage of a new generation, stood "Josephine," in a little railed-off enclosure of her own, one of the star exhibits at the Dunedin Exhibition of 1926. Everybody stopped as they strolled along, to cast amused and interested glances at the funny little old engine with funnels at either end, a simple and primitive solution of the problem of turning her right way round. "Josephine" had reached the pinnacle of her career; who was to know that the poor old engine had been rescued from the ignominy of a scrapheap by a patriotic citizen and given an honoured resting place beside the Early Settlers' Hall in Dunedin?
"Josephine's" history goes back more than sixty years, to an exciting New Year's Day in 1873, when she drew the first passenger train out of Dunedin to Port Chalmers. Actually the first train was a "goods," which, in the preceding September, had brought a freight of beer from the seaport to the city, but to "Josephine" was entrusted the honour of carrying the Governor and Lady Bowen, and most of the notabilities of Dunedin on the first passenger train to run in the South Island. The locomotive was one of the type known as the Double Fairlie. The designer boldly conceived the idea of mounting the driving mechanism of the locomotive on swivelling bogies, and, bolder still, of multiplying these. He built a deep firebox between the two bogies, on which separate driving mechanisms were supported. Presumably Josephine, despite her quaint design, did good work for the pioneer railway system of New Zealand, but before she had been long in commission, a rival engine appeared in the shape of one of the " Yankee Ks" that were much in use in those days. On one occasion, the driver of one of these engines gave "Josephine" a gruelling test. He was running the first through train from Christchurch to Dunedin, on September 6, 1878, and at Oamaru he received instructions to pick up "Josephine," and to double bank the rest or the way. After some argument the Yankee K was given the lead, and "Josephine" hooked on behind. The driver gave the rival engine a hard, hot run, and before long her fitter was on the job, and the passengers, who had been enjoying a banquet on the train, came out and sat on the bank waiting until she was ready for the road again. By the time Seacliff was reached, however, poor "Josephine" was in a terrible state, owing to her complicated internal mechanism, and as her fitter was unable to revive her, she was uncoupled and left behind.
She survived to do another twenty years' work, however, before she was tumbled into a heap of scrap-iron at the Otago Iron Rolling Mills works at Green Island, just out of Dunedin, and visitors to-day may still see this interesting old relic of the pioneer days of railway development in New Zealand. -NZ Herald, 2/2/1935.
|Josephine outside the Early Settlers Museum. Hocken Library photo.|
Josephine remained on her reserve outside the Settlers' Museum, being climbed over by a couple of generations of local children and slowly rusting. In the 1960s, Josephine was once more in peril. Scrapping was suggested, due to her condition. The children of Dunedin gathered their pennies together, the workers of the Hillside Railway Workshops gave their time and skill and Josephine was partially restored and put inside the Museum in 1968. When the Settlers' Museum, now Toitu, was rebuilt in 2012, Josephine was moved once more.